Tuesday, December 8, 2009

Hindu-Arabic numerals in Europe

Here is a passage from "Liber Abaci" (1202) featuring the Hindu-Arabic numerals:

"Novem figure indorum he sunt 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Cum his itaque novem figuris, et cum hoc signo 0, quod arabice zephirum appellatur, scribitur quilibet numerus, ut inferius demonstratur." Leonardo Pisano (Fibonacci) - Liber Abaci

However, it appears that the European debut of the Hindu-Arabic numerals is in an illuminated manuscript dated 976 ("Codex Vigilanus") - though without the zero:

Obviously, their use becomes widespread after the invention of printing.